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(Some phrases in parentheses, may have been added by AAOOB Storable Foods, this document was edited by AAOOB Storable Foods. You are welcome to copy, for home use. The author of Bread Making Tips is also, the author of the Family Grain Mill, Whole Grains Cookbook, found for sale on the Family Grain Mill page.) Note: January 2009, I have received word from Diana Ballard, author of Master Bread Making Using Whole Wheat, that excerpts of this page are directly taken from her book. I am pleased to now offer her book for sale as well. Master Bread Making Using Whole Wheat. Please, call for prices 1-888-201-6785.) We will be adding it to our shopping cart as soon as possible. Thank you, Diana Ballard, for setting us straight and helping us to sell your book! This popular page has helped so many people and since you wrote some of it, you should get credit for it also!
MILLING - GRAINS - BAKING TIPS
grains, made into fresh breads & foods are The Staff
Twenty-five vitamins, minerals and proteins, as well as the high fiber benefit of bran are available only in freshly milled flour from whole grain berries. Because grain is naturally preserved in it's shell, it is important to preserve the whole grain until the last moment - the way nature intended in order to get the most nutrition out of your foods. Also, naturally occurring vegetable oils are encapsulated so that they do not become rancid easily in the whole grain kernel. Once milled, flour can become rancid in a relatively short amount of time, since the vegetable oils are released. Some studies have shown that vitamin loss begins as quickly as 3 hours after milling. For the most healthful breads, mill and bake within a 3 hour period. Flours that have been left on the shelf for many months have lost portions of their B Complex and C Vitamins.
WHEAT/SOFT WHEAT AND DURUM WHEAT
Red Winter or Spring Wheat and Hard White Wheat have a high gluten content
necessary for bread making. They have the nutty, wheat
flavor that produces delicious "whole grain brown breads".
White Spring Wheat (sometimes called Golden 86 or Prairie Gold
derivatives) also can be used
for bread making. It is a hybrid - The bitter compounds in
the wheat bran have been bred out. It is sweeter and lighter.
Good for pizza dough - French bread - where you want lighter or
White Winter Wheat is called pastry wheat - for pancakes, pastries, pies,
biscuits, cookies, cakes and muffins - when you need flaky
and delicate. Soft wheat will not make high
rising wheat breads, but makes excellent muffins,
biscuits, pancakes, waffles, cookies, cakes and pies. It
will make batter breads such as banana nut bread and other
breads leavened by Baking Soda and Baking Powder.
Soft wheat will not make high rising wheat breads, but makes excellent muffins, biscuits, pancakes, waffles, cookies, cakes and pies. It will make batter breads such as banana nut bread and other breads leavened by Baking Soda and Baking Powder.
(Kamut can also be used for making pastas.)
Durum is not usually used to make breads or pastries. It
makes dumplings, biscuits, spaghetti pasta, macaroni and
(Kamut can also be used for making pastas.) Durum is not usually used to make breads or pastries. It makes dumplings, biscuits, spaghetti pasta, macaroni and egg noodles.
wheat and Spelt can make yeast bread. Spelt grain. Kamut
grain can also make yeasted breads, if you add extra Vital
Wheat Gluten also called Gluten Vital Wheat. There are many other
nutritional grains, but all others must be combined with wheat (for
its gluten) to make yeast bread.
the other flours, whether beans or grains may be substituted for wheat flour in a bread
recipe, which in turn will manifest its own unique
characteristics. These flours (except Spelt
and Kamut) do not contain enough gluten
in them for successful high rising yeast bread making. Add
or substitute 1/3 to 1/6 cup of Wheat flour to your
mixture in order to get high rising breads.
The germ and the bran are the components that cause so much difficulty in bread making with 100% whole-wheat flour. This can easily be overcome! Wheat bran, although it is very nutritious and high in dietary fibers, after milling has rough sharp edges that can damage the gluten framework (which traps the gas causing rise), as it’s being kneaded and during rising. The nutrition in wheat germ is also very valuable, however it contains among other things a substance called Glutathione that breaks down the gluten in whole wheat bread dough.
look at a few things that can give us help with this.
is a living plant, a microscopic fungus that as a
by-product of it's existence makes the bread rise. It needs warmth,
moisture and food to grow. Warmth - 100f - 110f for
best results; moisture – Water is good; and food -
sugars, honey or molasses are especially good.
ferments sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. The
gas is trapped in the gluten network and causes bread to
rise until the oxygen is used up or you kill the yeast (by
baking or over fermentation).
is two types yeast commonly available nowadays. Regular
active dry yeast and instant yeast. Both have
been dried to deactivation, but the yeast cells are not
yeast being dried at lower temperatures; so it
produces more live cells and quicker more vigorous action
when added to flour and water. Unlike active dry yeast it
does not need to be "proofed" (or dissolved) in warm
water, but can be added along with the flour after the
first of the 2 cups of flour have been incorporated.
dry yeast has a hard outer shell that needs to be
softened in warm water with some sweetener for 5-10
minutes before adding to other ingredients. There are fans
of both types of yeast.
the substance call Glutathione in wheat germ, which breaks
down the gluten? It is also present in yeast (small
amounts). It will not affect the quality of your bread as
long as it stays in the yeast cell. Only under adverse
conditions will it leak out. When using active dry
yeast, be careful that your dissolving water is
no cooler that 100f. Glutathione will leak
out of the yeast cells rapidly in cool water, causing your
dough strength to be weakened. With instant yeast
make sure your dough "batter" or flour
temperature is at least 75f when adding the yeast. If your
freshly milled flour is very warm, over 120f, make sure
the liquid in your recipe is a little cooler that 90f so
you do not overheat the dough and kill the yeast.
Vitamin C to
By using vitamin C, Ascorbic Acid, in your dough you will
help to counteract the negative effects of Glutathione.
Vitamin C will not only help prevent the gluten bonds from
breaking down; but will help repair gluten bonds that have
already been broken. Vitamin C helps sustain the leavening
of bread loaves during baking. It also promotes yeast
growth causing your yeast to work longer and faster and
helps produce the acidic atmosphere in which yeast grows
Use 1/4 tablespoon of vitamin C
crystals (powdered) or a 250mg tablet crushed in a
tablespoon added to liquids per 4-loaf recipe.
easiest, fastest! The flavor of the grain will be more
apparent and the texture chewy.
will rise higher, toast more evenly and quickly. Bread
will have a finer texture and keep longer. Scald all milk
(heat to just below boiling) except canned milk. This is
to kill enzymes that interfere with the activity of the
yeast. Milk proteins also compliment the protein in wheat
for added nutritional value.
- dough will be more tender and have a nice flavor. Scald
like regular milk and use no more than ½ liquid
requirement or it can make the bread too tender.
Potato Water - the liquid reserved after boiling potatoes not only gives greater volume, but gives a coarser texture, one that is good for holding spread butter after toasting. Also adds moistness. Use no more than ½ your liquid requirement. (We have a free recipe very old recipe, for making yeast using potatoes and hops. You are welcome to copy and paste any of our free recipes.)
- adds tang. Substitute for ½ liquid requirement.
Vegetable juices or Broth
- tomato juice, apple juice, seed sprouting soak water or
whey (by-product of cheese making). Use any of these as part
of your liquid requirement for added nutrition and varying
tastes and textures.
Eggs - can be another liquid - adding
protein, color and loft. They also add to the keeping
quality of bread; due to the preserving quality in the
lecithin in the egg. If eggs are added in addition to
required liquid amount, then decrease liquid in the recipe by
1/4 cup for each large egg. You can use 1-2 eggs per loaf.
1 extra large egg equals about 2 ounces. 4 extra large
eggs or 5 large eggs equal about 1 cup liquid.
Oils - Canola, olive oil, any good
quality (cold pressed oil); even coconut or the cream off of whole fresh
milk. Oils tenderize the dough, increase elasticity and
produce a more tender crumb. Volume increases, bread
browns more evenly and it enhances keeping quality. Never
use too much, as it will shorten the gluten strands, making
it crumbly and cake like. A minimum of one tablespoon oil
or fat for each 4 cups flour. I use 1/3-cup oil or melted
butter for a 2-loaf recipe.
Pizza dough and French bread
hardly any oil.
First measure your oil and add it,
then use same cup to measure and add sweetener to recipe.
This is particularly helpful with liquid sweeteners like
honey or molasses.
- add flavor, adds moistness, especially honey. Feeds
yeast and adds to keeping quality. Preferred: Honey,
molasses or barley malt syrup. Be careful of high
temperatures when using honey as it tends to over brown
and scorch. I use 1/3-cup honey per 2-loaf recipe.
Salt - Enhances flavors and controls the fermentation process. Bread with no salt is usually tasteless and flat. Never add it to the liquid in which the yeast is dissolving as it inhibits yeast growth. Use unrefined sea salt or "real Salt" if possible, (earth mineral salt). I use 1 tablespoon per 2-loaf recipe. Many recipes call for less, but this is my preference to bring out flavor in bread.
- Derived from soybeans, it helps bread remain moist and
soft by slowing down oxidation of its liquid components
and acts as a binder. It comes in granular, liquid or
powdered form. 1 ½ tsp. of liquid or granular per loaf is
sufficient as a binder. If you use powdered follow
directions on can.
Wheat Gluten or Gluten Flour - This
is extracted from high protein wheat. It is also a binder,
making dough more elastic and gives it a boost. If your
flour is less than 16% protein you will need to add
gluten. It also helps to compensate for the damage done to
the gluten in your bread dough due to the bran’s jagged
edges, which occur during the milling process. 1-2
tablespoons per loaf should be enough. Too much gluten
flour will make bread tough and rubbery.
Diastatic Malt Powder or Barley Malt Syrup
- These are sweet derivatives of toasted barley. They add
nutrition, improve appearance, texture and keeping
1-tablespoon sweetener in recipe with ½ - tsp. power or 2
tablespoons syrup. Too much will make you bread gummy,
dense and either too sweet or bitter.
- Powdered or liquid - A dairy by-product (from making
cheese), rich in protein, minerals and milk sugar. Aids in
browning, adds nutrition, adds flavor and slightly
sweetens. Good for promoting beneficial bacteria in colon
(like yogurt). Use ½ cup powdered to any recipe. I use
1-cup liquid whey to replace water in a 4-loaf recipe.
Potatoes - A good source of yeast food and
natural vitamin C (also contains Potassium, which is good
for the heart). Acts as a dough enhancer and adds
moistness. Makes for a lighter, better textured bread.
or Oatmeal - They add crunch and moistness, makes
good toasting bread.
1 cup rolled oats per 2-loaf recipe.
and Seeds - Chopped or ground nuts, ground or
Fruit, Sprouts, Spices, Herbs, Cheeses, etc.
- Adds nutrition, crunch, flavor, variety, fun, and adds to
appearance. Once you have gotten the "feel of the
dough", start experimenting and be creative. Your
family will thank you! Dried fruit can be used as is, but
it does help to soak in boiled hot water first.
Other Flours - Rye, Pumpernickel (This is a Rye Flour bread that contains caraway seeds or flour, which in conjunction with dill seed, ground, gives Pumpernickel it's distinctive and delicious flavor), Triticale seed (A hybrid mix of rye and wheat, which is high in protein 14% the first 12 months in storage, but then reverts to 12% after one year of storage.), Corn, Barley, Soy (except Kamut and Spelt), do not produce enough protein in themselves to make successful risen yeast bread. These flours must be used together with high protein wheat flour. Some vital wheat gluten added would not hurt either. Excellent results can still be obtained by replacing wheat flour with your choice of flours up to 1/4 - 1/3 the total amount of flour. Kamut flour and Spelt flour are exceptions. They both contain adequate gluten to make yeast breads with cohesiveness and loft. Kamut is an alternative for many persons allergic to wheat. Persons with Celiac Disease may substitute with Lentils, Sorghum Milo and Millet for a high protein bread, that is low in gluten (will not rise, like a wheat bread, but is full of protein.)
USEFUL INFORMATION ON GRAINS AND BAKING.
(Some phrases in parentheses, may have been added by AAOOB Storable Foods, this document was edited by AAOOB Storable Foods. You are welcome to copy, for home use. The author of Bread Making Tips is also, the author of the Family Grain Mill, Whole Grains Cookbook, found for sale on the Family Grain Mill page.) Note: January 2009, I have received word from Diana Ballard, author of Master Breadmaking Using Whole Wheat, that excerpts of this page are directly taken from her book. I am pleased to now offer her book for sale as well. Master Breadmaking Using Whole Wheat. Please, call for prices 1-888-201-6785.) We will be adding it to our shopping cart as soon as possible. Thank you, Diana Ballard, for setting us straight and helping us to sell your book! This popular page has helped so many people and since you wrote some of it, you should get credit for it also!
Copyright © 2000 AAOOB Products. All rights reserved.
Revised: January 07, 2012.