to Rehydration Methods & Cooking Tips
Dehydration techniques have come a long way in recent years.
technology left as much as 30% moisture in the dehydrated products. Nor did
these poorly dehydrated foods store very well. With present technology, moisture
levels have been reduced to 2% or 3%. Gone are the pliable dehydrated foods. Now
they break with a crisp "snap" when bent. With moisture levels reduced
to 2%-3%, storage life has been increased to several years. In doing background
work for this study, I opened up a can of dehydrated carrots and another can of
onions that were 8 years old. They had each been stored for at least 3 of those
years in a warm garage. During the last five years they were in our basement
food storage room. During a careful taste test I could not tell the difference
between the items 8 years old and the freshly dehydrated carrots and onions.
Next, I opened a can of potato flakes we've had in our food storage for the last
15 years. This can of potato flakes has followed us around for what seems like
numberless apartments and homes, sometimes stored well and sometimes not. How
did they taste? Really nice and fresh.
Five years ago my
Supplier obtained several 28 year old cans of dehydrated food that had been
stored unusually cool. Then we asked the Benson Institute at BYU to test them. The
results of the test were most positive for such old food. These cans have been
sitting in our manager, Mr. Portela's basement since that time. Having had the
opportunity to taste them myself recently, even after 5 years of being stored in
open cans covered with plastic lids, these foods are still maintaining their
quality. I find this remarkable - even amazing. What makes this all the more
interesting is that none of these cans in Mr. Portela's basement or my food
storage room were stored with oxygen absorbers. Things like this make me think
we've under-rated the storage life of many of our dry-pack canned foods. This is now especially true considering
our cans contain only minimal oxygen. For those of you new to this concept,
removing the oxidizing oxygen is one of the key factors in extending the life of
Don't expect dehydrated
vegetables to taste exactly like their fresh or canned counterparts. For
example, I think back to when my children were really small. They were used to
eating canned peas. Then one day we boiled up some fresh peas straight from our
new garden and served them at dinner. After one taste, two of the kids who were
less than 8 years old and had never tasted fresh cooked peas before said, "Uuooo,
I don't like this." The peas didn't taste exactly like what they were
accustomed to, even though they had what most people consider a better flavor.
In a similar way, some people will say, "Uuooo, I don't like that,"
when tasting dehydrated foods for the first time because of a slightly different
taste. Just like my little kids' first experience with the fresh garden peas,
it's not a bad taste, just a little different taste. Generally speaking,
dehydrated foods won't have quite as strong a flavor as fresh foods. Almost in
every case, however, after adding a little butter and salt and pepper, prepared,
dehydrated food is every bit as tasty and sometimes even better tasting than
Often people ask,
"Don't I need to keep these foods in the refrigerator after opening
them?" Folks who haven't used dehydrated foods before have learned to
accept without question the necessity of putting their wet-packed foods in the
refrigerator after opening them. Of course, this is very important for wet
packed foods as they will spoil if you don't. But dehydrated food is different.
It takes a moisture content of 15% to 30% for most molds or bacteria to begin
growing. The moisture content of these dehydrated foods falls far below this,
and should not be a concern unless you live in a humid environment.
What should you be
concerned about regarding the dehydrated foods you have in opened cans? Be
careful of storage conditions in overly high temperatures and high humidity.
All our cans come with a plastic lid to close them after removing the metal lid
with a can opener. Although these lids are not air tight, if you live in a dry
climate, they do provide enough protection to keep your dehydrated foods fresh
for a while. However, if you live in a humid area or think it will take you
several months to use up the contents, we suggest putting the food into a
different container after opening the can. Here's the problem... as the
barometric air pressure rises and falls, it pushes and pulls air into and out of
your opened cans around the plastic lid. As it does this it will bring in
moisture with it that's absorbed into the food. When enough moisture has been
absorbed that the food becomes pliable, the storage life has been seriously
degraded and you need to use it up. If you wish to be a bit cautious, when you
open a can, transfer it's contents into other air tight containers. A good piece
of Tupperware has a better sealing lid than the plastic lid that comes on our
cans. But perhaps the best solution is to put your food in Zip-lock bags. As
they have flexible walls, they can bend with the air pressure changes so there's
never a difference of pressure between the inside and the outside of the bag
wall, such as what you do find with rigid walled containers. With your food in
baggies, you can throw them right back into the #10 can the food came out of and
put the included plastic lid back on the top.
We are also ask,
"Don't I need to put more oxygen absorbers into the can after opening
it?" No, it's not necessary. These foods aren't fragile but can take a
certain amount of abuse before their nutritional or taste qualities deteriorate
very much. Right now in my family's pantry in the kitchen, we have several #10
cans that are partly full, some of them having been open for several months. In
every instance, the foods are still completely serviceable. Granted, we live in
a dry, cool climate, ideal for dehydrated food storage.
Weight: The dehydrated vegetables
in this study increased in weight when rehydrated from 3 1/4 times to 6 times
depending on the food. This decreased weight can mean a lot depending on your
circumstances, especially if they must be carried or shipped.
volume: Except for the mushrooms,
the foods in the study increased in volume 2 to 3.5 times when they were
rehydrated. It's amazing how many cans of wet packed vegetables it takes to
equal the amount of food that's in a #10 can. In most #303 sized cans of
vegetables, after the water is drained off, there remains about 1 cup of food.
Erring on the side of using too much dehydrated food in this comparison, if 1/2
cup of dehydrated food is required to equal the actual food in a #303 can, that
#10 can would hold the equivalent of 27 #303 cans of wet-packed food. Which
would you rather have in your pantry? One #10 can or over a case of #303 cans?
time/technique: Yes, it
does take a bit more time to prepare dehydrated food. However, it doesn't take
that much more time. And sometimes the dehydrated foods can be more quickly
prepared than fresh foods. Take our hashbrowns for example. They can be ready
for the frying pan in just 10 minutes. If I'm working with unpeeled potatoes it
takes me longer than this. On the other end of the spectrum, our dehydrated
sweet corn takes about the longest time to re-hydrate - a cooking time of about
1/2 hour. Most meals prepared from dehydrated vegetables can be ready to eat
from the pantry to the dinner table within 30 minutes. If time isn't a big
factor, dehydrated vegetables cook up very nicely in a crock pot. And if you are
in a big hurry, they rehydrate quickly in a pressure cooker.
Dehydrated food retains
more of it's nutrients than either frozen or canned foods. Please call for
Nutrient Loss Comparison Page for specifics.
With dehydrated foods there's
never any waste, unless of course, you don't eat it all. The parts of the plant
that are generally trimmed have already been cut off before starting the
dehydration procedure. After the dehydration process is complete, all that's
left is the best part of the food. And with the dehydrated food, safe in a can
in your pantry, you never have to concern yourself with fresh vegetables going
bad in the bottom of your refrigerator.
Lets use sweet garden peas for
one example... In December of 2000, a #303 can of peas in your average,
grocery store cost 59 cents. After the water was drained, there was about a cup
of peas remaining, so they cost about 59 cents per cup. A #10 can of dehydrated
sweet garden peas costs $19.30. As these peas rehydrate, they increase in volume
300% of their dry volume, or to about 40 cups. That's equal to about 40 each
#303 cans. Yes, dehydrated, all these peas can fit into a #10 can. Re-hydrated,
the dehydrated sweet peas cost 48 cents a cup, so they are 11 cents cheaper per
cup than canned peas.
Can sizes from left to right: #10 can,
#2.5 can and a #303 can.
Doing a little further
figuring, rehydrated carrots cost about 20 cents per cup (a #303 can costs 59
cents); cabbage, 33 cents a cup (a #303 can of sauerkraut costs 69 cents);
tomato paste, 54 cents for a cup or 8oz (a 6oz can in the store costs 59 cents
or calculated to 79 cents for 8 oz) and re-hydrated mushrooms cost 81 cents a cup
(a #303 can costs $1.89). The only vegetables in the study that didn't cost less
dehydrated were the rehydrated sweet corn, costing 74 cents per cup (a #303 can
in the grocery store cost 59 cents) and green beans costing 65 cents a cup (a
#303 can costs 60 cents).
The above costs reflect
AAOOB's Retail Prices for #10 cans and not our present 15% discount on can
orders. If you bought these foods at our bulk prices in bags or boxes,
the cost would only be 30% to 55% of our #10 can prices depending on the food.
This reflects costs for dehydrated vegetables less than grocery store prices for
What follows are pictures and a brief description of several of the
dehydrated vegetables in this study.
Green Beans increase in volume
about 2 times when boiled in water; the weight increases 5 times. Of all the
dehydrated foods in this study, the green beans reconstituted more closely to
it's canned counterpart. You could put a serving of canned green beans next to a
serving of cooked dehydrated green beans and not be able to see the difference.
The texture and flavor is also very similar. Because of how light dehydrated
green beans are, a pound of them would last a typical family for quite a while.
Dehydrated green beans go great by themselves but would be equally as tasty in
green bean casserole or any other green bean dish.
Cooked and ready to eat...
Broccoli increases in volume about
times when boiled in water; the weight increases 5.4 times. Broccoli can be
reconstituted in either cold or hot water and re-hydrates in cold water in 10 to
15 minutes. The dried broccoli breaks smartly when bent. It seemed to me that
re-hydrated, raw broccoli is just a bit more tuff than it's fresh counterpart.
Boil it for two minutes and you will be hard pressed to tell it from fresh
cooked broccoli that's been shredded a bit.
Mr. Portela, my boss, makes a broccoli cheese sauce from cheese powder and
dehydrated broccoli that will knock your socks off - delicious! You can't buy
canned broccoli, but you can surely dehydrate it. And another really BIG plus
with dehydrated broccoli - you don't have to cut off the stem - the majority of
the weight - and throw it away. Dehydrated broccoli consists of 'just the tops.'
Cooked and ready to eat...
Cabbage increases about 2.25
times when soaked in cold water, when boiled, about 2.6 times; the weight
increases 6 times when cooked. After a couple of people told me they've made
coleslaw with dehydrated cabbage I had to try this myself. The rehydrated raw
cabbage lacks the crispness of fresh, uncooked cabbage but has basically the
same flavor. Still, I think it lacks a certain amount of robustness that
traditional coleslaw has.
The military has been using dehydrated cabbage in their dining facilities for
many years. Boiled, dehydrated cabbage has much of the same taste as fresh
cooked cabbage and is one of the more successfully dehydrated foods used in the
US food industry.
Cooked and ready to eat...
Carrots increase in volume about
3 times when boiled in water; the weight increases 4.6 times. It takes them
about 15 minutes to cook. Rehydrated carrots in cold water are not a good
substitute for raw carrots.
However, cooked, with salt and pepper and a bit of butter added they have a nice
flavor, as nice, I think, as fresh cooked carrots or canned carrots. Eat them by
themselves as cooked carrots or throw a handful of them, dry, into your soups,
stews or casseroles before cooking.
Cooked and ready to eat...
Celery increases in volume about
2 times when soaked in cool water; the weight increases 4.2 times. Me, I really
didn't like the raw, reconstituted celery by itself. It wasn't as good as fresh
celery as it was a bit harder and didn't have the crispness of fresh celery.
However, in cooked dishes such as stews, soups and poultry stuffing, dehydrated
celery's flavor and aroma comes through loud and clear, every bit as good as if
you were using fresh celery. You can feel comfortable in using dehydrated celery
in any cooked recipe that calls for fresh celery. And it saves time. Instead of
having to wash and cut fresh celery, you can simply toss a small handful of
dehydrated celery right into the makings of most dishes. ...quick and easy.
Our Super Sweet Corn increases
in volume about 2 times when boiled in water; the weight increases 3.3 times.
Their dehydrated color is darker than either fresh or canned corn and even
though they do lighten up a bit when re-hydrated, they still maintain a darker
color than either fresh or canned corn. After cooking for a half hour, the
re-hydrated, cooked corn is noticeably not as soft as fresh or canned corn.
Experimenting, I blended up a small amount of the dehydrated corn then boiled it
to see if I could make creamed corn. After cooking it for 1/2 hour, it never did
thicken up by itself. It's flavor is quite tolerable, although in my opinion,
not as good as fresh or canned corn. Yes, like the other dehydrated foods we
mentioned thus far, you could toss a handful of dried corn into many different
dishes before cooking them and it would add flavor and texture to your dishes.
Cooked and ready to eat...
Valerie Jackson forwarded the following
"The pressure cooker is especially good for
the corn. If you treat dried corn more like posole, or a quicker cooking legume,
you will have great results. I also find corn benefits greatly from soaking for
several hours, if you have the time to plan ahead."
Mushrooms, when re-hydrated, remain
about the same volume when soaked in cool water; the weight increases 4.1 times.
Re-hydrated dry mushrooms have basically the same texture and flavor of fresh,
raw mushrooms but lack some crispness.
Re-hydrated in cold water, I think these mushrooms are good enough to put in
dishes that call for raw mushrooms such as green salads. I feel you can use them
with confidence in any cooked dish that calls for cooked or fresh mushrooms.
Chopped Onions increase in volume
about 1.3 times when soaked in cool water. When boiled, they increase in volume
3 times and the weight increases 4 times. Raw, they aren't quite as good as
fresh onions but are certainly good enough to use in place of raw onions in such
dishes as potato salad.
Cooked in meat loaf, stews or whatever you add onions to, you will not notice
any difference between fresh and dehydrated onions. Re-hydrated onions, soaked in
cool water, look very much like fresh cut onions and can be used interchangeably
in most places where fresh onions are used.
Red Bell Peppers
Our Mixed Peppers consist of red
and green bell peppers. They increase in volume about 2 times when soaked in
cool water; the weight increases 6.1 times. Rehydrated in cold water, the raw
peppers have nice color and the flavor is good enough to use in dishes that use
uncooked peppers such as the raw salsa that some people like.
Not quite as crisp as fresh, cut bell peppers and consisting of much smaller
pieces, you may or may not like them in green salads. Cooked in a casserole,
soup or stew, I don't think you'd be able to tell the difference between fresh
peppers and dehydrated peppers.
Hashbrowns increase in volume 2.6
times when boiled in water; their weight increases 5.8 times. Dehydrated, they
are hard and smartly break when bent. To rehydrate, pour the dehydrated potatoes
in 3 parts of boiling water. Let them boil until tender which usually takes
about 10 minutes.
They will absorb most of the water. Unlike raw, grated potatoes, when you boil
these spuds they won't turn into mush. After they are soft, drain whatever water
is left in them and throw them in a hot, oiled frying pan. They take more heat
than fresh potatoes to brown. If your taste buds are like mine, you'll love
these things. In fact, I like them better than hashbrowns the wife makes from
fresh, baked potatoes. ...just a delightful flavor and texture.
Rehydrated and fried...
Tomato powder increases in volume
about 1.66 times and increases in weight about 2.7 times when making it into a
thick tomato paste. Of course, it will stretch further if you wish to make it
into tomato sauce - increasing in volume about 2 1/2 times. Adding more water
still, I thinned it down to the consistency of tomato juice. It's color was a
little darker and had a bit more of a bite than tomato juice - With a couple of
shakes of celery salt and a shake of Tabasco Sauce it really kicks!
Dehydrated & Powdered...
Tomato powder is
extremely hydrophilic which means it just loves water. In fact, it will absorb
moisture right out of the air. I've had more than one person call me and say
their tomato powder was ok when they opened it, "but now it's as hard as a
rock." This happens when it has absorbed too much moisture. This is not so
much of a problem in dry climates, however. The can of tomato powder in my
pantry has been open for over a year now and it's still a powder. If you live in
a high humidity area, upon opening your can, you may wish to transfer most of it
into smaller, airtight containers to prevent this from happening. If it does
'set up' on you, it's still useable. Break a chunk off and put it in water.
It'll soften up.
You can add tomato powder
in any dish where you'd use tomato paste or tomato sauce. The flavor should be
the same and we think you'll be really happy with it.
TVP Hamburger patties are a snap
to make. Boil 7/8 cup water and add 1 cup TVP. After all the water is absorbed,
set TVP aside to cool. If you're in a hurry, spread out cooked TVP on an open
plate. After it has cooled enough to handle, mix in 3 tablespoons flour. Form
TVP into patties and fry in a lightly oiled pan on a low to medium heat. Making
patties from Taco, BBQ, Sausage or Sloppy Joe TVP is especially good.
Myths and misunderstandings run VERY high about TVP (Texturized Vegetable
Protein). During the last few years lots of things have changed regarding TVP. TVP is a food product
made from soybeans. It is produced from soy flour after the soybean oil has been
extracted, then cooked under pressure, extruded, and dried. TVP has a long shelf
life if stored properly and is an excellent source of protein and fiber. Many
public schools use TVP as a food source in the breakfast and lunch programs. It
meets standards of nutrition but is economical as well. Plain TVP has zero
cholesterol. However, some flavor variations do have partially hydrolyzed oil in
them for flavor and texture changes. Hydrolyzing the fat extends the shelf life
as compared to using vegetable oil. However, even though the fat content is
increased in some of the flavored varieties, with such a high fiber content, the
balance is still very much on the healthy side -- especially if you are making a
comparison to ground beef or sausage. For example, Sausage TVP is 17% fat, but
it has an incredible 11% fiber! It is a good source of the essential amino
acids, and also contributes calcium and magnesium to one's diet. It can be
fortified with vitamins, including Vitamin B12. It is very high in potassium, is
a good source of the essential amino acids, and also contributes calcium and
magnesium to one's diet. TVP is dry and has a very low bacterial count. On the
other hand, meat products can be easily contaminated with bacteria such as E.
Coli and Salmonella. TVP contains absolutely no meat or meat byproducts -- so
those who are on strict vegetarian diets can use this to supplement their
protein. TVP products are also Kosher approved. Storage is a breeze -- TVP can
sit in a cupboard in a sealed container for at least a year. If sealed airtight
(without oxygen), the shelf life is greatly extended (although, with its great
taste and ease of preparation, you won't leave it hiding anywhere for very
long!) As always, for the longest storage life it should be kept in a cool, dry
place. Due to the moisture in many varieties of TVP, storage after opening is
better in a dry place away from excessive heat.
Price wise, it is very economical and makes an excellent meat substitute in many
dishes. After all, you are buying a dry product, and the weight greatly
increases with the addition of water. For example, 1 pound of beef dehydrates
down to 4 oz of jerky. You are paying for 12 ounces of water per pound of meat
when you purchase fresh beef! For another example, a pound of sausage in the
grocery store runs between $1.50 to $2.50 depending on how good the sale is. A
pound of DRY sausage runs about $1.20, and re-hydrated, that would come to a cost
of $0.40 per pound. Lean hamburger on the absolute best sales I've found ran
$0.99/lb. Beef TVP runs $1.55/lb DRY -- making it about $0.45 per pound
re-hydrated. That's an incredible savings -- and no thawing or browning time is
required -- just throw it in the dish! One oz of TVP is approximately equivalent
to 3 oz. of meat.
Itís hard to top lean protein with a very good amount of fiber for that price.
To see what I mean, take 4 oz of dry beef TVP, re-hydrate it and add 15 oz of
beans, 8 oz of tomato sauce and your spices. This makes 2.5 lbs of Chili. So,
price wise, a 25 lb box of TVP will make 250 lbs of great tasting, spicy Chili
when the beans, sauce and spices are added. And talk about a quick meal, if you
get home and are in a rush, you can have tacos or BBQ "beef" on a bun
or Sloppy Joes in under 15 minutes. TVP is truly a healthy time saver. It is
great for camping as you only have to boil water and you have a dinner. There
are no worries about keeping meat cold until you are ready to serve it. And
because it re-hydrates so readily, you can quickly re-hydrate a bit more if
needed. This helps limit waste on a camp outing.
How much water you use to reconstitute TVP will largely depend on the size of
TVP you are cooking with. The small granules or bits of TVP are easy to
re-hydrate: you can add them straight to soups or pour 7/8 cup boiling water over
1 cup of TVP and let it stand for 5-10 minutes. Adding a little ketchup, lemon
juice, or vinegar (acidity) helps speed up re-hydration if you are in a rush.
Remember, flexibility is a key component to cooking with TVP. You can, if you
prefer, use less liquid to re-hydrate it and get a slightly different feel. You
can also partially re-hydrate the TVP and then put it in the recipe you are
cooking to absorb "some" of the liquid from the dish, and thus also
the flavor. You can also change the texture of the pre-flavored items like the
taco or BBQ TVP by adjusting the amount of liquid you add. This can make it more
moist or chewy. TVP holds it's texture and feel in things like spaghetti sauce
and stews and will still be good for leftover use. Caution must be used in
caring for TVP after it is re-hydrated. It must be refrigerated and treated like
What follows are some suggestions for using the different varieties of TVP and
directions for proper re-hydration:
rehydrate, add 1 cup boiling water to 1 cup TVP and cook
6-10 minutes in the microwave. Using a good, salt free bouillon in the water
perks up the flavor even more. Throwing the TVP partially re-hydrated into a
heated salsa also works (or any other flavored/spiced liquid). For quick
rehydration, add 3/4 to 1 cup boiling water to 1 cup TVP. No extra cooking time
is really needed -- just let it soak up the water for a few minutes. This can
also be tossed into spaghetti sauces, taco meat, soups, chili, sloppy Joes, meat
loaf, enchiladas and more. The list goes on as far as your creativity can reach.
TVP can be used as a meat extender but remember to add extra liquid in the
recipe if added dry. Or if necessary, it can be used to help thicken it up.
This TVP is
good thrown into white sauces, casseroles, muffins, scrambled eggs, gravy,
biscuits or pizza pockets. To rehydrate, use 3/4 cup boiling water to 1 cup TVP.
Microwave for about 2 minutes, remove and let stand for several minutes.
This TVP is good
re-hydrated or dry. Toss into salads, dips, muffins
or biscuits, omelets or quiche. To rehydrate, add 3/4 cup boiling water to 1 cup
TVP. In moist dishes you can put them in dry and they will pick up the moisture
and flavor the dish, so add extra liquid to accommodate for dishes such as
stews, casseroles and potato dishes.
This is the same as the artificial bacon bits purchased in the
grocery store and is used much in the same way. Toss them onto salads, into
muffins, omelets, casseroles, over green beans, cooked broccoli and baked
potatoes. Again, you are only limited by your imagination! This TVP is so good
it's hard not to eat it by the handfuls right out of the can.
To rehydrate, add 3/4 cup boiling water to a cup of the TVP. If you like, you can
rehydrate it to the feel you want by adding a small amount of water at a time to
get the consistency you desire. Like Bacon and Ham TVP, it is great tossed on
salads, potatoes, and toppings on casseroles. Try with refried beans, in cheese
sauces and meatless taco dishes.
BBQ and Sloppy Joe TVP:
Mix 1 cup TVP to 1 cup boiling water and cook over
medium heat stirring occasionally until the excess moisture is absorbed. Serve
as you would BBQ beef; in rice, as an open face sandwich, on buns or with potato
salad. This is very flavorful and extremely low in fat -- you'd think by the
feel and flavor that is was loaded with fat.
TVP: Rehydrate by adding 1 cup boiling water to 1 cup TVP. Pepperoni TVP goes
great on Pizza, hash browns, Italian salads and Italian sandwiches. It makes
great pizza roll ups in any type of dough. Experiment - you'll like it.
A Parting Comment...
TVP can create some gas. Beano would help. However, if you work into it
gradually, your body will get used to it, which generally takes care of any
Chicken Filled Roll Ups
Simmer in small kettle until mixed and blended, 5-10 minutes. Roll pieces of
bread dough into rectangle shapes. Spoon a small amount of filling along center
of dough. Pull up sides and pinch to close as well as ends. Turn over and place
on greased baking sheet. Bake in preheated oven 350 degrees for 15 minutes or
until golden brown. Serve hot. May serve with white cream sauce poured over.
- 1 cup chicken TVP
- 1 tbs. chopped onion
- 1 tbs. cream soup base
- 2 tbs. cheese powder
- 1 1/2 cup boiling water
Cover with 3 cups hot water and simmer approximately 20 to 25 minutes until
beans become tender. Stir occasionally.
- 1 1/2 cup dehydrated green beans
- 3/4 cup cream soup base
- 1 tbs. butter (opt.)
- 1 tbs. dehydrated mushrooms
- 2 tbs. chopped onions
- 1 tbs. bacon or ham TVP
Place in crock pot and cover with 2 quarts hot water. Cook for several hours
until tender. May add more water if needed.
- 2 cups dried potato slices
- 1 cup beef TVP
- 3/4 cup vegetable stew blend
- 1 tbs. chopped onion
- 3/4 cup dehydrated garden peas
- 1/2 cup tomato powder
- 4 tsp. bouillon beef
Cream of Chicken Casserole
Place in crock pot and cover with 2 cups hot water. Simmer several hours on low.
May add more water if needed.
- 2 cups dried potato dices
- 1 cup chicken TVP
- 1 1/2 cup cream soup base
- 1 tbs. chopped onion
- 1 tbs. celery
- 1 tbs. butter powder (opt.)
Wheat Chili TVP
Place in crock pot and add 4-5 cups hot water. Simmer for several hours before
serving. May add more water if needed.
- 3-4 cups sprouted or steamed wheat
- 1 cup beef TVP
- 1/2 cup tomato powder
- 2 lbs. dried onion
- 1 tbs. brown sugar
- 3-4 tbs. chili seasoning